Wednesday, 3 January 2018

Microhydel Manual for Engineers, Tech. Experts and General Readers, Chapter # 14 (Questions and Answers)

                                                             Chapter # 14                                                       Questions & Answers

Microhydel power projects, constructed with the collaboration of local organizations and financially & technically supported by Governmental or non-Governmental institutions, working in this sector, are generally long lasting and durable.
These projects are well known and famous for their low cost. No complicated technology is being used in manufacturing of these power projects. It is a low-cost technology.
The acquisition of this technology is very simple. It is easily available in local market, easily accessible and easily repairable. The purpose of manufacturing microhydel equipment at local level is to encourage local industry and bring it forward so that this technology should be in the reach of local people.

If a group of some people or any investor intends to build a microhydel power project, should know the name and address of local suppliers or manufactures from where they could procure their relevant equipment and other accessories.
The biggest thing is that the repair of such small microhydel power projects donot need a lot of skilled technical expertise. An individual having little know how about microhydel power projects can perform the repair work of these power plants or projects.
In addition, these power plants constructed with financial and technical support from donor agencies fulfill power needs of the local communities. These power plants are handed over to local communities after their completion and the community is fully responsible for repair & maintenance of their microhydel power projects. The donor agency or institution provides technical support, if possible, according to its capacity, if needed by the local organization for its power plant.
The operator of any power plant should be a little bit literate and some know how about microhydel power projects so that he could operate the power plant without any trouble and difficulty.
These questions were asked by the participants of a training which was conducted for operators of community based microhydel power projects.
Please read out all the question and their answers and i hope you will be updated and by reading all the questions and answers. 
Just go to the link and click the link to get access the relevant chapter.
Questions & Answers - Chapter # 14

Tuesday, 2 January 2018

Microhydel Manual for Engineers, Tech. Experts and General Readers, Chapter # 13 (How to Use Electricity)

                                                  Chapter # 13                                               

                                         How to use electricity?

If an individual or a person buys any type of electronic item, for example, a clock, tape recorder or a mobile from market, the seller tells few safety precautions which he thinks are correct according to his knowledge to the buyer about the sold item. In buying the clock, the buyer is told to follow flowing main points for long life of the clock.
  • keep away the clock from water
  • Put off clock during heavy manual work, for example during cutting of wood or stones etc.
  • Keep away from reach of children.
  • Use cell of good quality.
  • Clock will not easily be damaged if it is used by a single person.
In case of purchasing of a mobile, the buyer is instructed to act upon flowing main points for his own interest.
  • Mobile should not be charged unless & until “Battery low” signal appears on the screen.
  •  Battery charge could be over/ finished by using camera or listening of F.M radio & audio or watching of videos.
  • Mobile should be turned OFF while charging.
  • Save mobile from sun and water.
  • Keep away mobile from thieves
  • Use cover or casing to avoid any damage to mobile etc.
  • At last, the buyer is being told that adopting above mentioned precautions, mobile would work for a long time.
Similarly, if a buyer wants to buy tape recorder and he also wants to buy any cheap but of a good quality tape recorder of a reputable company. The seller or shopkeeper shows adapted tape recorder and in addition, he elaborates following guidelines to buyer:
  • In case of use of cells, the batteries or cells should be changed in time, otherwise any leakage from cells may damage electrical or electronic circuit.
  • If the tape recorder is operated by electricity, good quality adopter should be used and voltage level should be maintained as per requirement of the system.
  • Tape recorder buttons repeatedly not be touched.
  • Tape recorder should be kept away from reach of children.
  • Antenna of tape recorder should not be used frequently while listening radio or the antenna should not be pulled out at its full length because by using antenna at its full length, radio will catch many channels at the same time.
Now, obviously, a person can listen to a channel at a time. To listen to a specific channel without any interference, he tunes the radio. The filter circuit inside the radio will undermine by filtering the required channel among many channels catch by using of antenna at its full length.
This will affect the performance of radio and it will be disfigured very soon. It may also happens that sometimes, using of antenna for a long period, if a person tries to listen radio without antenna, the radio will not catch any channel because it becomes habitual of using of antenna. If a cash amount was spent on buying the tape recorder, good quality cassette may also be bought for the tape recorder.
The cassettes available in local market at the rate of Rs. 30/- or 40/- rupees may destroy the tape recorder badly.
  • Cassette cover might break by frequent changing of cassette or mechanical malfunction may arise in the system.
The aim of mentioning of all these points here is only to highlight that a person who earns money by physical hardworking and buys something or invest to construct any scheme, he or she should be worried about his investment or project or scheme or plan and the project or scheme or programme or plan should be beneficial to him or her.
Since nothing is available freely in market or bazaar and ultimately one has to spend money for everything. Every one of us must think before starting any work or project or scheme whether it is beneficial or not to the society or the individual.
For further detail about proper utilization of electricity, Just click the link below and get access to the chapter.
How to Use Electricity - Chapter # 13

Microhydel Manual for Engineers, Tech. Experts and General Readers, Chapter # 12 (Causes of Fire & Safety Measurements )

Hi, Common causes of fire
  • Match, Carelessness in extinguishing cigarettes.
  • Enough air to pass through
  • Unsafe wire of rotten insulation
  • mproper storage of ignite liquid
  • Rotten cables
  • Use of wires and cables of less than required size.
  • Presences of fire near ignite liquid.
  • Sparking of power cables or wires near ignite liquid.

Safety measures from fire prevention
According to civil liability, everything has a separate place or location. Remember that;
  • Fire prevention routes should be cleared of obstacles.
  • Refrain from burning matches or fire near ignite materials.
  • Ignite materials should be packed in cans or boxes with labels.
General guidelines for fire extinguisher
Since fire can be harmful to life and property therefore every worker should be prepared every time for firefighting and to overcome the fire.
Fire extinguisher devices & tools
    • Fire extinguisher
    • Shovel
    • Blanket & broom
  • Bucket, an ax and ladder
  • Cutter & torch
Main points of fire safety
  • Use proper tools & equipment.
  • Keep away from flames of fire.
  • Do not breathe in too much vapor and smoke.
  • Stay calm and avoid fatigue.
  • Determine spreading out limit and location of fire.
  • Determine necessary tools and assessment of support.
  • Distribute tools and manpower appropriately.
  •  Remove dangerous material i.e. oil, gas and explosive from the location of fire.
It is very important for the operational staff adopt safety rules and take precarious measurements while working with these plants otherwise, a tiny guilty may cause harm you.
In this chapter, you will read the safety measurements relating the operation of the project. Note down your point of interest for future reference. 
To get access to this chapter, go to the link shared below and tap the link and you get accessibility to this chapter

Monday, 1 January 2018

Microhydel Manual for Engineers, Tech. Experts and General Readers, Chapter # 11 (Installation of Poles For T/D Network )

Hi, To carry the Power in form of Voltage and Current up to the load center, poles or vertical insulated supports are provided at pre-determined points. For Transmission, Long poles are used while for distribution, relatively small poles in height are used. (Why) ?
Because while transmitting of power, the voltage is increased by decreasing the current through Step up transformers. If small poles are used for this high level of voltage, it may be dangerous for human beings so for safety purposes, tall poles are used to transmit power from its source to load centers. At load centers, this voltage is decreased with the help of step down transformers up to 11000/230 volts (Neutral to phase) or 11000/415 in case of phase to phase. 
Since in our country, all electrical appliances are designed at 230 Volts so after lower the voltage level from 11000/230, then this electricity is supplied to the end users. It is known, and the people visited foreign countries may will have noticed that in those countries all electrical appliances are rated at 110 Volts. Most of our valued visitors may know, why all electrical appliances in foreign countries are designed at rated Voltage of 110 Volts while in our country, these appliances are rated at 220 Volts or 230 Volts?   

If you don't know then you should ask from any technical expert. For the time being I tell you. It is just for human safety. There are more chances of electrical shocks in using 220 or 230 Volts in copare to 110 Volts.. 220 Volt is double to 110 Volt so it is more dangerous than 110 Volts having high pressure. God Forbids, if a person is electrocuted with 110 Volts, he or she may alive and there are rare chance for him or her to a vital accident in comparison to that individual that electrocuted with 220 Volts.
In remote MHPs, wooden poles are normally used and recommended because these plants are being constructed in far flung areas where the end users are illiterate and specially the children don't know the electricity. Since, wood is purely insulator material and doesn't pas electricity through its body and these wooden poles don't attract any body touch the pole due to electrical charges which may associate with iron poles.
In this chapter you will read the installation of Poles in detail. I hope you will get enough knowledge about installation of poles. Main task for you to do is just go to the link shared below and tap the link so that you could get accessibility to the chapter.
Installation of Poles For T/D Network -Chapter # 11

Sunday, 31 December 2017

Microhydel Manual for Engineers, Tech. Experts and General Readers, Chapter # 10 (Faults and Remedies )

                                                        Chapter # 10                                

                        Faults & remedies of microhydel power projects

Hi visitors, In this chapter, you will go through the faults which occur in Microhydel Power Projects during their operation. These faults are of different types and may occur at any time. As discussed in previous chapter (Chapter 9), the operator should check the whole system and its mechanism of operation before starting the project for operation. 
He should be very careful about the system and specially its mechanical parts, like belts, pulleys and shafts and never touch any moving part when the plant is in operation. He should just monitor the system for any unusual movement or vibration.
As mentioned early in previous chapters, these are microhydels means very small units, just like a kid and a kid always acts according his or her will and if you want to take any work or assignment from your kid then first you have to motivate your kid for the task. You have to fulfill his or her demands if he or her asks from you'

Microhydel Power project is just like a kid, it demands to close monitor each and every item like, from grease to cleanliness of different electrical and mechanical joints before, during and after operation of the system.
Each and everything relating the faults & remedies of the plant has been described in the chapter in consideration in tabular form. Go through the chapter thoroughly, Note down points of interest with the help of your pen on a paper. 
The English is very simple and in my opinion a person who has done his matriculation or having a diploma can understand this simple English. The main task for you to get access to the Chapter is to just go to the link shared below and click the link and you will get access to the Chapter.
At this time you will not see the link because you are in the middle of the page. Just scroll down the page and you will see the link at the bottom of the page. Your one finger click will take you to the Chapter. Therefore, hurry up and tap the link shared below.


Faults & remedies of microhydel power projects

Friday, 29 December 2017

Microhydel Manual for Engineers, Tech. Experts and General Readers, Chapter # 09 (Operations & Precautions )

                                                                      Chapter # 9

                                                            Operation & Precautions

Hi guys, to run or operate a system or a device, either it is small or big in size is a difficult job. The individuals who take the responsibility of such tasks should highly be motivated, active and healthy. Here in this Chapter, we are discussing the operation &maintenance of Microhydel Power Projects. These are small units, just like kids. A kid doesn't fulfills your demands or obeys your orders unless and until, you will fulfill his or her demands. So first spend something on the kid and then get something from him or her. You have to monitor all activities of your kids on daily basis and then you will get some fruitful results from your kids. 
To operate a microhydel Power project, there should be a skilled, trained and technically sound individuals who can handle the project without any hurdle. The operator must be healthy, sound to work and of good to his work. 
Since, there moving parts like pulleys, belts, flywheel and shafts which rotate during operation of the mhp so the operator should be precarious about these parts and adopt precarious measurements while performing his duties.
Any negligence in operation may cause serious issues to the operators. About repair and maintenance of an MHP, you will read the story in this chapter by clicking the link given below which can not visible because you are at the middle of the page. Scroll the page down and you will see the link. The main task for you to access the chapter is just go to the link and by tapping your finger on the link you will get the chapter. 

For downloading the chapter please click here on the link below for further reading.
Download:  Operations & Precautions - Chapter # 09

Tuesday, 19 December 2017

Microhydel Manual for Engineers, Tech. Experts and General Readers, Chapter # 08(Electrical Parts of a Microhydel Power Project)

Electrical Parts of a Microhydel Power Project consist of the following;

  • Conductors
  • Insulators
  • Poles
  • Clips
  • Cables
  • Control panels
  • Electronic load controllers
  • Binding wires
  • Transformers
  • Bushes
  • Many more
Among all these components, conductors do a very vital job, they carry current from alternator to consumer. In other words, they the medium of transportation of electricity from generating source to end point. So it is very important to choose best quality and best brand conductors. Use of open market conductors should be avoided and discouraged because these are only wires not conductors, having no specifications and standard. 
Since, we work on small scale units with little amount of load current to carry, good quality conductors for distribution line network. There is reasonable no issue if open market conductors are used for transmission network in case if transformer is suggested for a unit. The transformer covers up the losses in voltage, other wise for direct transmission/distribution network reasonably good quality with thick diameter should be used. Avoid to use transformers in remote areas because in case of any electrical fault in transformer, it is difficulty for the beneficiaries to repair or transport the transformer for repair. 

This chapter covers all the aspects of Mechanical components of a Microhydel Power project. Read the whole chapter carefully and if possible, note down your points of interest. Don;t say that this a general book which can be had from anywhere. I would like to mention that such books are not available in market, it is lesson by learnt book. Therefore read the book thoroughly and get as more benefits as you can. 
To get accessibility to this chapter please click the link shared below.